BK, BKD

Capacitor banks BK are designed for reactive power compensation in low voltage systems in industrial plants or branch stations.

Technical description

bk bkd

In an electricity system the reactive power industry influences the quality deterioration of the energy network parameters and the increase of electricity charges. The ZPUE S.A. company has in its offer solutions for compensation of the inductive and capacitive reactive power, such as:

  • capacitor banks,
  • capacitor banks with protective chokes,
  • capacitor banks (to be agreed upon with the manufacturer, after completing an analysis of the energy network parameters of the facility).

Reactive power compensation in electricity system

There are three distinguished stages of reactive power compensation:

  1. Central compensation
    The capacitor bank is installed on the main switchgear (the most frequent application).
  2. Group compensation
    The capacitor bank is installed on the subswitchgear or near the group of recipients (in extensive cable network, dispersed recipients).
  3. Individual compensation
    Capacitors installed on single recipients (high power recipients).
kompensacja
Capacitor banks technical data:
Rated power from 40 up to 600 kvar 1)
Rated power of the increment from 5 up to 60 kvar
Number of compensation levels from 4 up to 15
Capacitor bank operation rated voltage 400 V 2)
Isolation rated voltage 690 V 3)
Power frequency 50 (60) Hz
Busbar rated short-time withstand current up to 40 kA
Protection degree IP3X 4)
Cooperation with current transformers xx/5
Power supply from the top or from the bottom

Notice:
1) Possibility to connect together capacitor banks to bigger sets.
2) Possibility to manufacture 500 V and 690 V capacitor banks.
3) 690 V capacitor bank requires 750 V isolation.
4) Possibility to manufacture up to IP54 protection degree.

General principles of capacitor bank selection

The role of the reactive power in total power consumption is determined by two coefficients. The first is the power coefficient cosφ, which was presented in relation/ratio (1.1)

1.1

When the cosφ is closer to one, the role of the reactive power is smaller. Energy suppliers usually use the power coefficient tgφ in their settlement contracts. A power coefficient tgφ was received from the relation/ratio(1.2)

1.2

When the tgφ is closer to 0, the supply of the reactive power is smaller. On the basis of received tgφ and required active power,the indicative power of the capacitor bankscan be calculated. The QBat capacitor banks’ power is determined from the relation/ratio (1.3)

1.3

tgφ corresponds to – power coefficient required by the power plant.


Power and energy chart

wykres
P - active power [kW]
Ea - active energy [kWh]
Q - reactive power [kvar]
Er - reactive energy [kvarh]
S - apparent power [kVA]
Eopp - apparent energy [kvah]

Notice!
In order to select capacitor banks properly, it is necessary to meter the electricity network in the facility.


Capacitor bank protection against adverse effects of higher harmonics

Applying rectifiers, power inverters and frequency inverters to modern receiving devices is very often the main cause of voltage and current deformation, which results in a change in their sinusoidal waveform. They include numerous harmonics , which are an undesirable phenomenon, because they reduce the lifetime of the electrical devices. This phenomenon is particularly dangerous in relation to the capacitor bank. A condenser reactance is reduced when the frequency is higher. In consequence, a high voltage current flows through the capacitor and causes damage. In order to protect the capacitor banks against the adverse effects of higher harmonics, protection chokes connected in series with capacitors are used.

The level of disturbance present in the network (the number of harmonics) is defined by THD coefficient. Depending on the THD coefficient, the capacitor bank type is chosen.

THD  ≤ 15% Capacitor bank with normal capacitors (Un Kond = 400 V)
15% ≤ THD ≤ 25% Capacitor bank with reinforced capacitor banks (Un Kond = 440 V)
25% ≤ THD ≤ 50% Capacitor bank with compensation chokes
THD > 50% Tracking compensator based on semiconductor elements

Capacitor banks manufactured by ZPUE S.A. are identified by the bank type symbol and cubicle type

bkd

Capacitor bank type:
BI Inductive capacitor bank
BK Typical capacitor bank (Un Kond = 400V)
BKW Reinforced capacitor bank (Un Kond = 440V)
BKD7 Capacitor bank with chokes 7%
BKD14 Capacitor bank with chokes 14%
 
Cubicle type:
R Cubicle type RN-W
I Cubicle type INSTAL-BLOK
Z Cubicle type ZR-W
R - Cubicle type RN-W
bk typ rn w
I - Cubicle type INSTAL-BLOK
bk typ instal blok
Z - Cubicle type ZR-W
bk typ zr w

Capacitor bank range

Normal capacitor banks (Un capacitors 400 V)

Nominal capacitor
bank power [kvar]
Cubicle type Regulation level Number of levels Exemplary dimensions [mm]
[width x height x depth]
40 R 5 5 550 x 1275 x 400
45 R 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
50 R 5 5 550 x 1275 x 400
55 R 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
60 R / I 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
70 R / I 10 3 550 x 1275 x 400
80 R / I 10 4 550 x 1275 x 400
90 R / I 10 4 550 x 1275 x 400
100 R / I 10 5 550 x 1275 x 400
110 R / I 10 4 850 x 1275 x 400
120 R / I 10 5 850 x 1275 x 400
140 R / I 10 4 850 x 1275 x 400
160 R / I / Z 20 5 550 x 1950 x 400
180 I / Z 20 5 750 x 1950 x 400
200 I / Z 20 6 750 x 1950 x 400
220 I / Z 20 6 750 x 1950 x 400
240 I / Z 20 7 750 x 1950 x 400
260 I / Z 20 7 750 x 1950 x 400
280 Z 20 8 800 x 2200 x 600
300 Z 20 8 800 x 2200 x 600
320 Z 20 9 800 x 2200 x 600
340 Z 20 9 800 x 2200 x 600
360 Z 20 10 800 x 2200 x 600
380 Z 20 10 800 x 2200 x 600
400 Z 20 11 1000 x 2200 x 600
420 Z 20 11 1000 x 2200 x 600
440 Z 20 12 1200 x 2200 x 600
460 Z 20 12 1200 x 2200 x 600
500 Z 25 11 1200 x 2200 x 600
550 Z 25 12 1200 x 2200 x 600
600 Z 25 13 1200 x 2200 x 600
We can manufacture a capacitor bank with different parameters at the customer’s request.

Reinforced capacitor banks (Un capacitors 440 V)

Nominal capacitor
bank power [kvar]
Cubicle type Regulation level Number of levels Exemplary dimensions [mm]
[width x height x depth]
40 R 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
45 R 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
50 R 5 5 550 x 1275 x 400
55 R 5 5 550 x 1275 x 400
60 R / I 5 4 550 x 1275 x 400
70 R / I 10 4 550 x 1275 x 400
80 R / I 10 5 550 x 1275 x 400
90 R / I 10 4 550 x 1275 x 400
100 R / I 10 5 550 x 1275 x 400
110 R / I 10 5 850 x 1275 x 400
120 R / I 10 5 850 x 1275 x 400
140 R / I 10 5 850 x 1275 x 400
160 R / I / Z 20 6 550 x 1950 x 400
180 I / Z 20 6 750 x 1950 x 400
200 I / Z 20 7 750 x 1950 x 400
220 I / Z 20 8 750 x 1950 x 400
240 I / Z 20 8 750 x 1950 x 400
260 I / Z 20 9 750 x 1950 x 400
280 Z 20 9 800 x 2200 x 600
300 Z 25 8 800 x 2200 x 600
320 Z 25 9 800 x 2200 x 600
340 Z 25 9 800 x 2200 x 600
360 Z 25 10 800 x 2200 x 600
380 Z 25 10 800 x 2200 x 600
400 Z 25 11 1000 x 2200 x 600
420 Z 25 11 1000 x 2200 x 600
440 Z 25 12 1200 x 2200 x 600
460 Z 25 12 1200 x 2200 x 600
500 Z 25 13 1200 x 2200 x 600
550 Z 25 15 1200 x 2200 x 600
600 Z 25 16 1200 x 2200 x 600
We can manufacture a capacitor bank with different parameters at the customer’s request.

Capacitor banks with chokes 7%

Nominal capacitor
bank power [kvar]
Cubicle type Regulation level Number of levels Exemplary dimensions [mm]
[width x height x depth]
40 R 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
45 R 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
50 R 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
55 R 5 5 850 x 1275 x 400
60 R / I 5 5 850 x 1275 x 400
70 I 10 4 550 x 1950 x 400
80 I 10 4 550 x 1950 x 400
90 I 10 4 550 x 1950 x 400
100 I 10 5 550 x 1950 x 400
110 I 10 5 750 x 1950 x 400
120 I 10 5 750 x 1950 x 400
140 I 20 5 750 x 1950 x 400
160 I / Z 20 5 750 x 1950 x 400
180 Z 20 5 800 x 2200 x 600
200 Z 20 6 800 x 2200 x 600
220 Z 20 7 800 x 2200 x 600
240 Z 20 7 800 x 2200 x 600
260 Z 20 8 800 x 2200 x 600
280 Z 20 9 1100 x 2200 x 600
300 Z 25 8 1100 x 2200 x 600
320 Z 25 8 1100 x 2200 x 600
340 Z 25 8 1100 x 2200 x 600
360 Z 25 9 1100 x 2200 x 600
380 Z 25 9 1200 x 2200 x 600
400 Z 25 10 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
420 Z 25 10 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
440 Z 25 11 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
460 Z 25 11 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
500 Z 25 12 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
550 Z 25 13 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
600 Z 25 14 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
We can manufacture a capacitor bank with different parameters at the customer’s request.

Capacitor banks with chokes 14%

Nominal capacitor
bank power [kvar]
Cubicle type Regulation level Number of levels Exemplary dimensions [mm]
[width x height x depth]
40 R 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
45 R 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
50 R 5 5 850 x 1275 x 400
55 R 5 5 850 x 1275 x 400
60 R / I 5 4 850 x 1275 x 400
70 I 10 4 550 x 1950 x 400
80 I 10 5 550 x 1950 x 400
90 I 10 4 550 x 1950 x 400
100 I 10 5 550 x 1950 x 400
110 I 10 4 750 x 1950 x 400
120 I 10 5 750 x 1950 x 400
140 I 20 5 750 x 1950 x 400
160 I / Z 20 6 750 x 1950 x 400
180 Z 20 6 800 x 2200 x 600
200 Z 20 7 800 x 2200 x 600
220 Z 20 8 800 x 2200 x 600
240 Z 20 8 800 x 2200 x 600
260 Z 20 9 800 x 2200 x 600
280 Z 20 9 1100 x 2200 x 600
300 Z 25 8 1100 x 2200 x 600
320 Z 25 9 1100 x 2200 x 600
340 Z 25 9 1100 x 2200 x 600
360 Z 25 10 1100 x 2200 x 600
380 Z 25 10 1200 x 2200 x 600
400 Z 25 11 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
420 Z 25 11 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
440 Z 25 12 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
460 Z 25 12 2 x (1000 x 2200 x 600)
500 Z 25 13 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
550 Z 25 14 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
600 Z 25 16 2 x (1200 x 2200 x 800)
We can manufacture a capacitor bank with different parameters at the customer’s request.

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